By Robert H. Nelson
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Feeding Farm Livestock
Little can be done to remove the stress at this time, although T h e metabolism of an animal is the sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on within its living body. 32 An Introduction to Feeding Farm Livestock in the past measures were taken to stop the cow producing milk. A supply of calcium, however, administered directly into the blood-stream, can have rapid and quite dramatic results in restoring the animal to normal health. Practical aspects Under normal farming systems, where animals are being kept under fairly natural conditions and they have access to good quality grazings, there need be no worry about the supply of minerals.
For this reason stockmen may feed some long fodder before turning cattle out to lush young grazing in the spring, when bloat is a possibility. After a time when the food reaches a certain degree of liquidity the reticulum contracts in the opposite direction and forces the food, together with the bacteria it contains, into the omasum, or third stomach. The omasum is an oval, flattened organ, and internally it consists of about a hundred longitudinal folds, which are roughened by many small papillae (projections).
The jaw movements vary in herbivorous and carnivorous animals. The herbivorous grind their food and the bottom jaw works with a rotary horizontal movement. Carnivores, on the other hand, merely bite their food with a vertical movement of the jaws and often bolt it without much chewing. There are three pairs of salivary glands. One pair lie under the tongue, another pair in the hind part of the cheek at the base of the ear, and the third smaller pair on the inside of the lower jaw. These glands secrete a watery solution containing mucin and in some cases a small amount of an enzyme ptyalin, which is an amylitic enzyme starting the breakdown of starch into sugars.
An Introduction to Feeding Farm Livestock by Robert H. Nelson