By Jacky Turner
The decision of while, how, how usually and with whom an animal breeds is relocating quickly clear of evolutionary pressures and in the direction of human reasons: those comprise the breeding of round 50 billion mammals and birds for meals construction every year, the breeding of pedigree canines and cats, racing canine and horses, specialized laboratory animal lines and using reproductive technological know-how to preserve endangered species or breeds and to restrict undesirable populations of pests and non-native species. however the ethics and sustainability of this takeover of animals' reproductive lives were insufficiently tested via both execs or the general public. This publication discusses the equipment, the motivations and the implications of human intervention in animal breeding by way of animal future health, behaviour and overall healthiness. It explores the place we're now and the alternatives forward, and appears to a destiny the place we now have extra recognize for animals as sentient beings and the place shall we loosen the reins of reproductive keep watch over.
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Additional info for Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society
But this is not principally why such selection is undertaken: cost effectiveness is the main motivation. Ironically, selection for higher yield and the use of intensive management systems are themselves the cause of many of the problems that the selection for functional traits now aims to solve. 8,9 Thus in principle a chicken or pig from a selected strain could grow more than one third faster at the end of ten years. Selective breeding and crossing transmuted the dual-purpose beef and dairy Friesian of the 1950s into the high-yielding Holstein dairy cow capable of producing three to four times the milk yield,10 with intensive feeding and management.
The evidence was reviewed by the European Union’s Scientific Veterinary Committee (SVC) in 1996 for hens and in 1997 for sows. A 2005 assessment of hen housing systems by the scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare concluded that battery cages present a ‘very high’ risk to hens’ welfare in six areas of impact, compared to two areas of impact for hens with outdoor access60 (and no housing system for keeping thousands of hens together is without drawbacks). The use of the farrowing crates is still almost universal in indoor pig breeding systems.
Increased consumer demand for a ‘good life’ for farmed animals56 could change these companies’ breeding goals and encourage them to breed more animals suited to non-intensive husbandry systems. Large number of geneticists, animal scientists and veterinarians are involved in animal breeding. These professionals are not always able to be in a neutral position between the animal production industry and the interests of animals, because they are employed to further the industry’s goals. In some cases, depending on funding arrangements, this may apply also to animal welfare scientists, although in many cases animal welfare scientists are able to be more independent of the industry and have been prominent in bringing poor welfare to public attention and in advocating changes in breeding and husbandry practices.
Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society by Jacky Turner